Weather conditions over the Pacific, including an unusually strong La Niña, interrupted seasonal rains for two consecutive seasons. The rains failed in 2011 in Kenya and Ethiopia, and for the previous two years in Somalia.
What led to the 2011 droughts in the Horn of Africa?
The drought is tied to the strong La Niña conditions that prevailed in late 2010 and early 2011. La Niña shifts ocean temperatures and air pressure over the Pacific Ocean, and its effects ripple through weather patterns around the world. In East Africa, La Niña causes drought.
What causes African drought?
The African drought cycles have a noticeable ‘natural’ component: they are partly caused by geophysical phenomena that make the continent’s humidity fluctuate. Unfortunately, in addition to these phenomena, emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities have led to serious droughts amplified by global warming.
What is causing the drought in Kenya?
Several issues such as global warming (causing recurrent and increasingly severe droughts as well as floods), the contamination of drinking water, and a lack of investment in water resources have enhanced the crisis.
Why is there drought in the Horn of Africa?
Three consecutive failed rainy seasons, coupled with increased temperatures, particularly in Somalia and Kenya, are driving this most severe drought which is expected to persist well into 2022.
What caused the Somalia drought 2011?
According to the UN, famine would spread to all eight regions of southern Somalia in four to six weeks due to inadequate humanitarian response caused both by ongoing access restrictions and funding gaps.
What is the major cause of famine in East Africa?
Though triggered by poor rains—in some places, the worst in 60 years—the underlying causes of the drought and food crisis that hit East Africa in 2011 were poor governance, conflict, chronic neglect of remote arid regions, and underinvestment in small-scale food producers, such as farmers and pastoralists.
What are 5 causes of drought?
Various Causes of Drought
- Natural causes.
- Altered weather patterns.
- Excess water demands.
- Deforestation and soil degradation.
- Global warming.
- Climate change.
- Hunger and famine.
- Not enough drinking water.
What caused droughts?
Drought has many causes. It can be caused by not receiving rain or snow over a period of time. … If you live in a place where most of the water you use comes from a river, a drought in your area can be caused by places upstream from you not receiving enough moisture.
Is East Africa in drought?
Food Crisis Grows from Dry Soils
Drought is apparent across much of East Africa after seasonal rains failed to deliver much moisture to the region.
What are the causes and effects of drought?
The Short Answer:
A drought is caused by drier than normal conditions that can eventually lead to water supply problems. Really hot temperatures can make a drought worse by evaporating moisture from the soil.
When did Kenya drought start?
Between 2008 and early 2010, Kenya, one of the countries of Eastern Africa, was affected by a severe drought, which put ten million people at risk of hunger and caused a large number of deaths to livestock in Kenyan Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASALs), constituting around 88% of the country.
What are the causes and effects of water pollution in Kenya?
The main problem caused by water pollution in Kenya is that it kills animals that depend on these water bodies. Dead fish, crabs, birds and seagulls, dolphins and many other animals are often found on beaches, killed by pollutants in the environment). Pollution also disrupts the natural food chain.
What caused the famine in Africa in 1985?
According to the organizations Human Rights Watch and Oxfam UK, the famines that struck Ethiopia between 1961 and 1985, and in particular the one of 1983–1985, were in part created by the government’s military policies, specifically a set of so-called counter-insurgency strategies (against Tigray People’s Liberation …
How long did the Ethiopian famine last?
The Great Ethiopian Famine alone, which spanned from 1888 to 1892, is estimated to have killed up to one-third of the population and is commonly referred to as kifu qan or “evil days.” Drought and pestilence are well-known contributors to food shortages in the country.
Why recurrent droughts occur in Somalia?
Main causes of the drought and its impact are said to be instability, conflict and climate change with severe weather conditions potentially also playing a part. El Niño may be the drought’s cause.